I’ve compared the gradient calculations of a `BatchNorm2d`

layer across different deep learning frameworks, specifically TensorFlow and PyTorch. While doing so, I’ve encountered a significant discrepancy in the gradients computed by the two frameworks. More specifically, the gradient computed by PyTorch is near zero, while TensorFlow returns something close to one.

Here’s the code I used for comparison:

```
import numpy as np
# TensorFlow/Keras
import tensorflow as tf
# PyTorch
import torch
import torch.nn as nn
# Set a common random seed for reproducibility
seed = 0
np.random.seed(seed)
tf.random.set_seed(seed)
torch.manual_seed(seed)
# Create a random input tensor with the same shape for all frameworks
input_shape = (4, 3, 5, 5)
x_np = np.random.randn(*input_shape).astype(np.float32)
# TensorFlow/Keras BatchNorm2d
class TFModel(tf.keras.Model):
def __init__(self):
super(TFModel, self).__init__()
self.bn = tf.keras.layers.BatchNormalization(axis=1, epsilon=1e-05, momentum=0.1)
def call(self, x):
return self.bn(x)
# Instantiate the model
tf_model = TFModel()
# Convert the numpy array to a tensor and ensure it's being watched
x_tf = tf.convert_to_tensor(x_np)
x_tf = tf.Variable(x_tf)
with tf.GradientTape() as tape:
y_tf = tf_model(x_tf)
y_tf_sum = tf.reduce_sum(y_tf)
# Compute the gradient of the output with respect to the input
grad_tf = tape.gradient(y_tf_sum, x_tf)
# Convert the gradient to a numpy array for comparison
grad_tf = grad_tf.numpy()
# PyTorch BatchNorm2d
class TorchModel(nn.Module):
def __init__(self):
super(TorchModel, self).__init__()
self.bn = nn.BatchNorm2d(3)
def forward(self, x):
return self.bn(x)
torch_model = TorchModel()
x_torch = torch.tensor(x_np, requires_grad=True)
y_torch = torch_model(x_torch)
y_torch.sum().backward()
grad_torch = x_torch.grad.detach().numpy()
# Calculate the difference between TensorFlow and PyTorch gradients
diff_tf_torch = np.mean(np.abs(grad_tf - grad_torch))
# Print the differences
print(f"Difference between TensorFlow and PyTorch gradients: {diff_tf_torch:.6f}")
print("grad pytorch : ", grad_torch[0])
print("grad tf : ", grad_tf[0])
```

### Outputs:

- Difference between TensorFlow and PyTorch gradients: 0.999500 (or similar)
`grad_pytorch`

: Shows a gradient of all zeros (10^-10).`grad_tf`

: Shows non-zero gradients.

I tried to compare both under same conditions. Furthermore, zero gradient for the input seems weird to me. Could there be an issue with how the layers are initialized, or how the inputs are being processed in PyTorch that might lead to this discrepancy? Any insights or explanations would be greatly appreciated