Get probabilities from Resnet output

I am using the Resnet18 model ( for 2D image classification, with 2 output classes. The final layer is the fully connected (fc) layer according to the model descriptions.

How would I go about getting the probabilities of the output classes? For example, now I get a 0 or 1, but I would want something like 0.75 (for 0) and 0.25 (for 1). Do I have to use a softmax layer somehow? And would this only need to be done for the testing portion or will I also need to make some change for the training as well?

Thank you for the help.

If you are using 2 output units for the binary classification use case and thus use torch.argmax to calculate the predicitons, you could use F.softmax to get the probabilities.
Note that you won’t need these probabilities to calculate the loss etc. if you are using nn.CrossEntropyLoss, but can of course inspect them.

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Just to be clear, do you mean to just add a last F.softmax layer when getting my test predictions?

And yes, I am using nn.CrossEntropyLoss, so I won’t need it to calculate the loss, but I want to be formal here and use softmax for another operation.


Yes, just use F.softmax outside of the model:

output = model(data) # output contains logits
# you can calculate the loss using `nn.CrossEntropyLoss` and the logits output
loss = criterion(output, target) 

# and you can calculate the probabilities, but don't pass them to `nn.CrossEntropyLoss`
probs = F.softmax(output, dim=1)

Thank you so much for this, since all the pre-trained models are majorly used for classification, why can’t we have the final layer as the softmax so that we can get the probabilities with just output = model(data) won’t that be easier? And we can take argmax of it if we need labels.

Im not sure if im right, but i think the current pre-trained models output logits. Maybe we can have a flag or something to output both, or either probabilities or logits.

I think the main reason to output logits is because commonly used loss functions such as nn.CrossEntropyLoss (multi-class classification) and nn.BCEWithLogitsLoss (multi-label classification) expect logits, not probabilities. Applying the softmax manually would reduce the numerical precision without much benefit besides being able to “see” the probabilities for debugging purposes.
Adding the F.softmax activation is trivial and (for these classification models) doesn’t yield any purpose besides printing the probabilities (you should not pass the probabilities to the mentioned loss functions).

alright, understood. Thank you :slight_smile: