# Predictive model with many similar values

Hi!

I trying to develop my first ANN if I am correct.
In short: I am trying to predict a coefficient for a flight (10 parameters:
month - month of the flight
day - day of the flight
week_day - day week
classname - class of the flight (like UberX or Select)
departure: country, city and airport
arrival: country, city and airport

Out of 377333 fligths avaliable 368904 have coeeficient of 0.05 (basically just 1 flight of the route expacted of that class)

With data this heavily skewed towards 0.05 my model obviously predicts 0.05 +/- some margine.
(I have example of Moscow-Dubai on 7th of November that should give a coeff of around 0.6, but I get 0.0534… )

My code looks like this:

``````x_train, x_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(x, y, test_size=0.20, random_state=42)

class Net(torch.nn.Module):
def __init__(self, input_size, hidden_size, hidden_size2, hidden_size3): #input size 10
super(Net, self).__init__()
self.input_size = input_size
self.hidden_size = hidden_size
self.hidden_size2 = hidden_size2
self.hidden_size3 = hidden_size3
self.fc1 = torch.nn.Linear(self.input_size, self.hidden_size)
self.relu = torch.nn.ReLU()
self.fc2 = torch.nn.Linear(self.hidden_size, self.hidden_size2)
self.relu2 = torch.nn.ReLU()
self.fc3 = torch.nn.Linear(self.hidden_size2, self.hidden_size3)
self.relu3 = torch.nn.ReLU()
self.fc4 = torch.nn.Linear(self.hidden_size3, 1)
self.sigmoid = torch.nn.Sigmoid()

def forward(self, x):
hidden = self.fc1(x)
relu = self.relu(hidden)
hidden2 = self.fc2(relu)
relu2 = self.relu2(hidden2)
hidden3 = self.fc3(hidden2)
relu3 = self.relu3(hidden3)
output = self.fc4(relu3)
output = self.sigmoid(output)
return output

training_input = torch.FloatTensor(x_train.values)
training_output = torch.FloatTensor(y_train.values)
test_input = torch.FloatTensor(x_test.values)
test_output = torch.FloatTensor(y_test.values)

training_input = training_input.to(device)
training_output = training_output.to(device)
test_input = test_input.to(device)
test_output = test_output.to(device)

# number of features selected
input_size = training_input.size()
#number of nodes/neurons in the hidden layer
hidden_size = 200
hidden_size2 = 100
hidden_size3 = 50
model = Net(input_size, hidden_size, hidden_size2, hidden_size3) # create the model
model = model.to(device)

criterion = torch.nn.MSELoss()
#with momentum parameter

model.eval()
y_pred = model(test_input)
before_train = criterion(y_pred.squeeze(), test_output)
print('Test loss before training', before_train.item())

model.train()
epochs = 5000
errors = []
for epoch in range(epochs):
# Forward pass
y_pred = model(training_input)
# Compute Loss
loss = criterion(y_pred.squeeze(), training_output)
errors.append(loss.item())
if epoch % 500 == 1:
print('Epoch {}: train loss: {}'.format(epoch, loss.item()))
print(y_pred)
print(training_output)
# Backward pass
loss.backward()
optimizer.step()

model.eval()
y_pred = model(test_input)
after_train = criterion(y_pred.squeeze(), test_output)
print('Test loss after Training', after_train.item())
``````

I am not asking for a solution, but rather suggestions. If you see something stupid or a mistake in my code, maybe overuse of hidden layers, please let me know.
Any advice on how to train such data would also be appriciated.
My current hyposesis is that I should make a model that binary predicts if there is a 0.05 coeff or not and then if not I should train the other model on predicting the coeff for those ‘max’ (but that model only going to have around 8k rows of data to train on)
Thanks!

The `sigmoid` activation at the output of your model seems strange for a regression use case with `nn.MSELoss` (I also don’t know if a regression would be the best approach for your use case).
Generally, I would try to overfit a small dataset (e.g. just 10 samples) by playing around with the hyperparameter and make sure your model is able to do so.
Once done you could try to scale up the use case again.

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