Why Does the Model not Improve?

For single variable non-linear curve fitting problem I defined my model, dataset classes, model parameters, and training loop as follows:

class MyDatasetV1(torch.utils.data.Dataset):

  def __init__(self, dataset):

    # Initialize a dataset

    assert isinstance(dataset, list), '"dataset" must be of "tuple" type'
    assert isinstance(dataset[0], torch.Tensor), '"x" must be of "torch.Tensor" type!'
    assert isinstance(dataset[1], torch.Tensor), '"y" must be of "torch.Tensor" type!'

    self.x = dataset[0]
    self.y = dataset[1]
    self.length = self.x.shape[0]

  def __len__(self):

    # Get the number of elements in entire dataset

    return self.length

  def __getitem__(self, index):

    return self.x[index], self.y[index]

class MyModelV2(torch.nn.Module):

  def __init__(self, input_size, output_size, hiddens, weights, biases, batchnorms, activations, dropouts):

    # Initialize a custom fully-connected model

    super(MyModelV2, self).__init__()

    assert len(hiddens) + 1 == len(weights), 'Number of hidden layers must match the number of "weights" units/tensors!'
    assert len(hiddens) + 1 == len(biases), 'Number of hidden layers must match the number of "bias" units/scalars!'
    assert len(hiddens) + 1 == len(batchnorms), 'Number of hidden layers must match the number of "batch normalization" units!'
    assert len(hiddens) + 1 == len(activations), 'Number of hidden layers must match the number of "activation" functions!'
    assert len(hiddens) + 1 == len(dropouts), 'Number of hidden layers must match the number of "dropout" units!'

    self.weights = weights
    self.biases = biases
    self.batchnorms = batchnorms
    self.activations = activations
    self.dropouts = dropouts
    self.layers_size = [input_size]
    self.layers = torch.nn.ModuleList()

  def build(self):

    # Build a model with given specifications

    for index in range(len(self.layers_size) - 1):

      layer = torch.nn.Linear(self.layers_size[index], self.layers_size[index + 1])

      if self.weights[index]:


      if self.biases[index]:



      if self.batchnorms[index]:

        self.layers.append(torch.nn.BatchNorm1d(self.layers_size[index + 1]))

      if self.dropouts[index]:



  def forward(self, x):

    # Forward pass for a given input

    for layer in self.layers:

      x = layer(x)

    return x

def set_weight(weights):

  return torch.nn.init.xavier_uniform_(weights)

def set_bias(biases):

  return torch.nn.init.zeros_(biases)


model = MyModelV2(1, 1, [64, 64], 3 * [set_weight], 3 * [set_bias], 3 * [False], 3 * [torch.nn.ReLU()], 3 * [False])

criterion = torch.nn.MSELoss()
optimizer = torch.optim.Adam(model.parameters())

x = torch.linspace(-10, 10, 1000 * 1).reshape((1000, 1))
y = 0.1 * x * torch.cos(x) + 0.05 * torch.normal(1, 2, size=(1000, 1))

ds = MyDatasetV1([x, y])
ds_loader = torch.utils.data.DataLoader(ds, batch_size=32, shuffle=True)

def get_training_loss(model, training_loader, criterion, optimizer):

  # Training loop for a given model

  training_loss = 0.0

  for x_train, y_train in training_loader:

    y_hat_train = model(x_train)
    train_loss = criterion(y_hat_train, y_train)
    training_loss += train_loss.item()

  # Calculate the average training loss

  training_loss /= len(training_loader)

  return training_loss

EPOCHS = 100

for epoch in range(1, EPOCHS + 1):

  tr = get_training_loss(model, ds_loader, criterion, optimizer)

  print(f'Epoch number: {epoch} - Training error/loss: {tr:.6e}')

def predictor(model, x):

  # Predict after training for a given model


  with torch.no_grad():

    x = model(x)

  return x

y_hat = predictor(model, x)

plt.plot(x.numpy(), y.numpy(), 'ro', markersize=1.5, label='(x, y)')
plt.plot(x.numpy(), y_hat.numpy(), 'bo', markersize=1.5, label='(x, $\hat{y}$)')

For the given model specifications above and also other alternatives, i.e., increasing number of hidden layers, neurons, etc., at the end of the training process, my model always predicts zero values. I went over my model many time to figure out the issue, but I have no idea. What do I do wrong here? Thanks in advance!

For whom it may concern,

I figured out the issue. For this specific task, “curve fitting”, there must be no ReLU activation function before the last output neuron(s).