### Life and work of Bronislaw Knaster (1893--1980)

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The paper deals with the history of Polish mathematical societies since 1917, when the Mathematical Society in Lvov was founded. In the second half of the 19th century there appeared first national mathematical societies in Russia, France, United Kindom, Italy, United States, Germany. In Poland, partitioned then by neighbour powers (Russia, Prussia, Austria) whose policy was to deny Polish national development - it was not possible. An attempt has been made abroad in the form of the Society of Exact...

Dramatic historical events of the last two centuries in Poland (partitions, uprisings, wars, oppressions etc.) heavily influenced fates of all people, including mathematicians. Distinguishing several periods by the eventful years 1795, 1832, 1862, 1913, 1919, 1939, 1945, 1952, 1989, the author recalls some Polish mathematicians for each of them (in total over 50) to explain what they could or could not do and what they eventually assessed or lost. Despite all adversities the Polish mathematics emerged...

Adam Olgierd Uziembło (AOU) was born on 3rd May of 1906 in Kimry on the Volga in the family of Adam (1985-1971) and Maria Jadwiga (née Wierzejski). His grandfather Joseph Uziembło (1854-1918) was the organizer of the socialist circles in Kiev, Moscow and Warsaw in the years 1974-1878. AOU grew up in his grandmother Catherine’s house, along with two uncle Władysław’s doughters. When his parents got divorced - remained under the care of his mother and grandmother. During the World War I AOU father...

From Leibniz extends the idea to develop research relating to such properties of various forms, which do not depend on the size and the distance between their elements. He called this new, not yet existing field of mathematics, Analysis Situs [Positions analysis ] and thought about its construction. On this, however, mean stop there.

The paper deals with personal losses of Polish mathematics caused by events accompanying World War II. Losses are divided into three parts: violent deaths (46 names), „natural” deaths (13 names), deportation or emigration (14 names). In total, personal losses comprise roughly a half of active Polish mathematicians from the prewar times. Each name is provided with a short notice on his/her fate and either a bibliography or an information where to find it.

The article recalls the story of the Lvov Polytechnic and of mathematical chairs in the period 1844-1945. Recalled are all chairmen and some of their collaborators as well as their close relations with contributions of the Lvov School of Mathematics.

The source article by L. Maligranda and W. Piotrowski (2017) presents rich material concerning the life and academic career as well as scientific achievements of Stefan Kempisty, professor at Stefan Batory University in Vilnius. However, he has little to say about his death. Indeed, the circumstances of this death have so far been unclear. The archival research carried out recently in Vilnius, however, allowed us to shed some light on it and this article presents the documents discovered at that...

Chance has always accompanied man. He was afraid of the elusive forces behind him, but he was also fascinated. Relatively late from this fascination arose the understanding that in some circumstances chance can be measured and, consequently, with the help of mathematics to reveal the regularities behind it. It began with gambling games already known in ancient times, such as the dice game popular among Roman legionnaires, but the first serious attempts at mathematical approach begin only in the...

The three universities – Poznań and Vilnius in Poland, Kaunas in Lithuania – had much in common: all three were founded in 1919, each promised studies in mathematics, and none possessed a native mathematician of its own. Mathematicians had to be taken from a far. Poznań relied on Zdzisław Krygowski (1872-1955), a newcomer from the Lvov polytechnic, who in the next twenty years laboriously worked up programs of studies and collected academic staff. Teaching was satisfactory (there was a course in...

In the period 1918-1939 mathematics in Poland was led by a few people aiming at clearly defined but somewhat different goals. They were: S. Zaremba in Cracow, W. Sierpiński and S. Mazurkiewicz in Warsaw, and H. Steinhaus and S. Banach in Lvov. All were chairmen and editors of mathematical journals, and each promoted several students to continue their efforts. They were highly successful both locally and internationally.

Pre-war academic staff in Poland, seriously curtailed during World War II, could not meet satisfactorily post-war demands of quickly expanding academic schools. Help has been provided by the pre-war school teachers. The article describes the situation in the field of mathematics, offering fates of over 40 school teachers of mathematics who joined universities and polytechnics, and giving some general remarks.

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Biography of Jerzy Urbanowicz (1951-2012) whose life included mathematical studies and achievements in cryptography

This note contains comments on the article Maciejak et al. [1] and their project implementation of mathematical modeling at the level of middle school which this article describes. His reflections author wrote at the request of the Editor of Mathematica Applicanda.

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