GPU memory is in normal use, but GPU-util is 0%

Hi, I’m new to CV, here is my code:

# !/usr/bin/python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import cv2
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from os.path import isfile
import torch.nn.init as init
import torch
import torch.nn as nn
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import os
from PIL import Image, ImageFilter
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split, StratifiedKFold, KFold
from import Dataset
from torchvision import transforms
from torch.optim import Adam, SGD, RMSprop, lr_scheduler
import time
from torch.autograd import Variable
import torch.functional as F
from tqdm import tqdm
from sklearn import metrics
import urllib
import pickle
import torch.nn.functional as F
from torchvision import models
import scipy as sp
from functools import partial
import random
import sys
from efficientnet_pytorch import EfficientNet

    from apex.parallel import DistributedDataParallel as DDP
    from apex.fp16_utils import *
    from apex import amp, optimizers
    from apex.multi_tensor_apply import multi_tensor_applier
except ImportError:
    raise ImportError("Please install apex from to run this example.")

def seed_everything(seed):
    os.environ['PYTHONHASHSEED'] = str(seed)
    torch.backends.cudnn.deterministic = True

SEED = 1234
TTA = 5
num_classes = 1
IMG_SIZE = 256
DEBUG = True
n_epochs = 100
es = 3
AMP = 'O2'
device = torch.device("cuda")

class OptimizedRounder(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self.coef_ = 0

    def _kappa_loss(self, coef, X, y):
        X_p = np.copy(X)
        for i, pred in enumerate(X_p):
            if pred < coef[0]:
                X_p[i] = 0
            elif pred >= coef[0] and pred < coef[1]:
                X_p[i] = 1
            elif pred >= coef[1] and pred < coef[2]:
                X_p[i] = 2
            elif pred >= coef[2] and pred < coef[3]:
                X_p[i] = 3
                X_p[i] = 4

        ll = metrics.cohen_kappa_score(y, X_p, weights='quadratic')
        return -ll

    def fit(self, X, y):
        loss_partial = partial(self._kappa_loss, X=X, y=y)
        initial_coef = [0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5]
        self.coef_ = sp.optimize.minimize(loss_partial, initial_coef, method='nelder-mead')

    def predict(self, X, coef):
        X_p = np.copy(X)
        for i, pred in enumerate(X_p):
            if pred < coef[0]:
                X_p[i] = 0
            elif pred >= coef[0] and pred < coef[1]:
                X_p[i] = 1
            elif pred >= coef[1] and pred < coef[2]:
                X_p[i] = 2
            elif pred >= coef[2] and pred < coef[3]:
                X_p[i] = 3
                X_p[i] = 4
        return X_p

    def coefficients(self):
        return self.coef_['x']

def score(valid_predictions, test_predictions, targets):
    optR = OptimizedRounder(), targets)
    coefficients = optR.coefficients()
    valid_predictions = optR.predict(valid_predictions, coefficients)
    test_predictions = optR.predict(test_predictions, coefficients)
    cv_socre = metrics.cohen_kappa_score(targets, valid_predictions, weights='quadratic')
    return valid_predictions, test_predictions, cv_socre

def expand_path(p):
    p = str(p)
    # print(train + p + ".png")
    if isfile(train + p + ".png"):
        return train + (p + ".png")
    # if isfile(train_2015 + p + '.png'):
    #     return train_2015 + (p + ".png")
    if isfile(test + p + ".png"):
        return test + (p + ".png")
    return p

def crop_image1(img, tol=7):
    # img is image data
    # tol  is tolerance

    mask = img > tol
    return img[np.ix_(mask.any(1), mask.any(0))]

def crop_image_from_gray(img, tol=7):
    if img.ndim == 2:
        mask = img > tol
        return img[np.ix_(mask.any(1), mask.any(0))]
    elif img.ndim == 3:
        gray_img = cv2.cvtColor(img, cv2.COLOR_RGB2GRAY)
        mask = gray_img > tol

        check_shape = img[:, :, 0][np.ix_(mask.any(1), mask.any(0))].shape[0]
        if check_shape == 0:  # image is too dark so that we crop out everything,
            return img  # return original image
            img1 = img[:, :, 0][np.ix_(mask.any(1), mask.any(0))]
            img2 = img[:, :, 1][np.ix_(mask.any(1), mask.any(0))]
            img3 = img[:, :, 2][np.ix_(mask.any(1), mask.any(0))]
            #         print(img1.shape,img2.shape,img3.shape)
            img = np.stack([img1, img2, img3], axis=-1)
        #         print(img.shape)
        return img

class MyDataset(Dataset):

    def __init__(self, dataframe, transform=None):
        self.df = dataframe
        self.transform = transform

    def __len__(self):
        return len(self.df)

    def __getitem__(self, idx):
        label = self.df.diagnosis.values[idx]
        label = np.expand_dims(label, -1)

        p = self.df.id_code.values[idx]
        p_path = expand_path(p)
        image = cv2.imread(p_path)
        image = cv2.cvtColor(image, cv2.COLOR_BGR2RGB)
        image = crop_image_from_gray(image)
        image = cv2.resize(image, (IMG_SIZE, IMG_SIZE))
        image = cv2.addWeighted(image, 4, cv2.GaussianBlur(image, (0, 0), 30), -4, 128)
        image = transforms.ToPILImage()(image)

        if self.transform:
            image = self.transform(image)

        return image, label

def train_model(data_loader):

    avg_loss = 0.
    for idx, (imgs, labels) in enumerate(data_loader):
        imgs_train, labels_train = imgs.cuda(), labels.float().cuda()
        output_train = model(imgs_train)
        loss = criterion(output_train, labels_train)
        with amp.scale_loss(loss, optimizer) as scaled_loss:
        avg_loss += loss.item() / len(data_loader)

    return avg_loss

def val_model(data_loader):
    avg_val_loss = 0.
    with torch.no_grad():
        for idx, (imgs, labels) in enumerate(data_loader):
            imgs_vaild, labels_vaild = imgs.cuda(), labels.float().cuda()
            output_test = model(imgs_vaild)
            avg_val_loss += criterion(output_test, labels_vaild).item() / len(data_loader)

    return avg_val_loss, output_test

def test_model(data_loader):
    test_pred = np.zeros((len(data_loader), 1))

    for _ in range(TTA):
        with torch.no_grad():
            for i, data in tqdm(enumerate(data_loader)):
                images, _ = data
                images = images.cuda()
                pred = model(images)
                test_pred[i * data_loader.batch_size:(i + 1) * data_loader.batch_size] += pred.detach().cpu().squeeze().numpy().reshape(-1, 1)

    output = test_pred / TTA

    return output

train_transform = transforms.Compose([
    transforms.RandomRotation((-120, 120)),
    transforms.Normalize([0.485, 0.456, 0.406], [0.229, 0.224, 0.225])])

train = '../input/train_images/'
test = '../input/test_images/'
train_csv = pd.read_csv('../input/train.csv')
test_csv = pd.read_csv('../input/test.csv')

test_transform = transforms.Compose([
    transforms.RandomRotation((-120, 120)),
    transforms.Normalize([0.485, 0.456, 0.406], [0.229, 0.224, 0.225])])
testset = MyDataset(test_csv,
test_loader =, batch_size=64, shuffle=False)

folds = StratifiedKFold(n_splits=5, random_state=SEED)
y_valid_pred = np.zeros((train_csv.shape[0], 1))
y_test_pred = np.zeros((test_csv.shape[0], 1))
for n_fold, (trn_idx, val_idx) in enumerate(folds.split(train_csv, train_csv.diagnosis)):
    print('fold {}:'.format(n_fold))

    train_df, valid_df = train_csv.iloc[trn_idx], train_csv.iloc[val_idx]

    if DEBUG:
        train_df = train_df[:40]
        valid_df = valid_df[:40]

    # train_df, val_df = train_test_split(train_csv, test_size=0.1, random_state=2018, stratify=train_csv.diagnosis)
    # train_df.reset_index(drop=True, inplace=True)
    # val_df.reset_index(drop=True, inplace=True)

    trainset = MyDataset(train_df, transform=train_transform)
    train_loader =, batch_size=32, shuffle=True, num_workers=4)
    valset = MyDataset(valid_df, transform=train_transform)
    val_loader =, batch_size=32, shuffle=False, num_workers=4)

    model = EfficientNet.from_name('efficientnet-b5')
    in_features = model._fc.in_features
    model._fc = nn.Linear(in_features, num_classes)

    optimizer = torch.optim.Adam(model.parameters(), lr=1e-3, weight_decay=1e-5)
    criterion = nn.MSELoss()
    scheduler = torch.optim.lr_scheduler.StepLR(optimizer, step_size=5, gamma=0.1)
    model, optimizer = amp.initialize(model, optimizer, opt_level=AMP, verbosity=0)

    best_avg_loss = 100.0
    no_improve_step = 1

    for epoch in range(n_epochs):

        print('lr:', scheduler.get_lr()[0])
        start_time = time.time()
        avg_loss = train_model(train_loader)
        avg_val_loss, fold_pred = val_model(val_loader)
        elapsed_time = time.time() - start_time
        print('Epoch {}/{} \t loss={:.4f} \t val_loss={:.4f} \t time={:.2f}s'.format(
            epoch + 1, n_epochs, avg_loss, avg_val_loss, elapsed_time))


        if avg_val_loss < best_avg_loss:
            best_avg_loss = avg_val_loss
  , 'efficientnet_weight_best_fold_{}.pt'.format(n_fold))
            no_improve_step = 1
            no_improve_step += 1
        if avg_val_loss >= best_avg_loss and no_improve_step >= es:
            print('early stopping after {} epoch no improvement'.format(es))
            print('best dev loss: {}'.format(best_avg_loss))

            y_valid_pred[val_idx] = fold_pred.cpu()
            y_test_pred += test_model(test_loader) / folds.n_splits

y_valid_pred_sub, y_test_pred_sub, cv = score(y_valid_pred, y_test_pred, train_csv.diagnosis)
train_csv['reg_pred'] = y_valid_pred
train_csv['diagnosis'] = y_valid_pred_sub.astype(int)
train_csv[['id_code', 'reg_pred']].to_csv('efficientnet_5fold_{}_oof_reg.csv'.format(cv), index=False)
train_csv[['id_code', 'diagnosis']].to_csv('efficientnet_5fold_{}_oof.csv'.format(cv), index=False)
sub = pd.read_csv('../input/submission.csv')
sub['reg_pred'] = y_test_pred
sub['diagnosis'] = y_test_pred_sub.astype(int)
sub[['id_code', 'reg_pred']].to_csv('efficientnet_5fold_{}_sub_reg.csv'.format(cv), index=False)
sub[['id_code', 'diagnosis']].to_csv('efficientnet_5fold_{}_sub.csv'.format(cv), index=False)

The problem I encountered was:

GPU memory is normally occupied during training, but GPU-util has always been 0 and and the usage of CPU is very high.

It looks like I’m using the memory of the gpu, but I’m training with the cpu. What is the reason for this?

Could you check, if the data loading pipeline is a bottleneck and thus your GPU could be starving?
Just execute the training loop with predefined random data on the GPU (don’t use your real data) and check the GPU utilization.

1 Like

Hi, ptrblck, you’re right. The problem is at the bottleneck of loading. Fortunately, my memory is large enough, so I solved this problem by reading all the pictures directly at once.

Thank you for your help, as always :)

1 Like

Hi ptrblck,

I’m encountering the same problem. Can U plz elaborate on bottleneck and the solution for it.

A simple test would be to use random tensor inputs instead of loading and processing the data from your SSD.
You could also profile the data loading time as shown in the ImageNet example. The timer should approach a zero loading time, if the workers are fast enough to create the next batch while the GPU is busy with the training.

Thank you for responding ptrblck.

I’ve tried using random tensor inputs and the gpu process is utilized 100%.

#testing if gpu process is working
a = torch.rand(20000,20000).cuda()
end = time.time()
while True:
a += 1
a -= 1
end = time.time()

However, while profiling the data loading time, I ended up getting erratic elapsed time.

Results for the actual data loader:

Since CUDA operations are executed asynchronously, you would have to synchronize the code before starting and stopping the timer via torch.cuda.synchronize().

If your data loading is the bottleneck, have a look at this post, which explains common pitfalls and some best practices.

Thank you for responding ptrblck.

Using toch.cuda.synchronize() has brought the values close but they are’nt close to 0.


I’ve gone through the post but I don’t find any solution yet.

Can you please go through the code,

df = pd.read_csv("../input/siim-isic-melanoma-classification/train.csv")
meta_data = df[['image_name','target']]
path = "../input/siim-isic-melanoma-classification/jpeg/train/"
class Image_Pipeline(Dataset):
    def __init__(self,path_dir,csv_file,transform=None):
        self.df = pd.read_csv(csv_file)
        self.path = path_dir
        self.transform = transform
    def __getitem__(self,index):
        image_name =['.jpg']*len(df)).values[index]
        image ="RGB")
        #image = cv2.imread(os.path.join(self.path,image_name))
        label = torch.tensor([index],dtype = torch.long)
        if self.transform is not None:
            image = self.transform(image)
        return image,label
    def targets(self):
        label = torch.tensor(,dtype = torch.float32)
        return label
    def __len__(self):
        return len(self.df)

batch_size = 16
val_pct = 0.2

get_transform = transforms.Compose([transforms.Resize((224,224)),
                                    transforms.Normalize(mean=[0.485, 0.456, 0.406], std=[0.229, 0.224, 0.225])])
dataset = Image_Pipeline(path,'meta_data.csv',transform = get_transform)
def split_train_val(dataset, valid_pct, batch):
    train_idx, valid_idx = train_test_split(np.arange(len(dataset.targets())), 
    train_set = DataLoader(dataset,batch_size=batch,sampler=SubsetRandomSampler(train_idx))#,num_workers=4)
    val_set = DataLoader(dataset,batch_size=batch,sampler=SubsetRandomSampler(valid_idx))#,num_workers=4)
    print("Training data size: {} \nValidation data size: {}".format(len(train_set),len(val_set)))
    return train_set,val_set

traindata,validation = split_train_val(dataset,val_pct,batch_size)
#To verify that the dataset and the splitted train val are of the same size
device=('cuda' if torch.cuda.is_available() else 'cpu')

def freeze_till_last(model):
    for param in model.parameters():
incoming = model.fc.in_features
model.fc = nn.Linear(in_features = incoming, out_features=1)

import torch.optim as optim
from torch.optim import lr_scheduler

def fit(model, traind, validation,epochs=1): # loss_fn, optimizer, epochs=1): #
    loss_fn = nn.BCEWithLogitsLoss()
    optimizer = optim.Adam(model.parameters(),lr=0.0001)
    end = time.time()
    for epoch in trange(epochs):
        for data,label in traind:
            print("ellapsed time:{}".format(time.time()-end))
            output = model(data)
            output =
            loss = loss_fn(output.view(1,batch_size)[0],
            end = time.time()
arg = [model,traindata,validation]