# How to normalize the output tensor to [0,1] and then calculate the SSIM between channels as loss?

The output of our CNN network is a non-negative tensor named D which dimension is [B,4,H,W]. B is batch size. For every sample, the output is a [4,H,W] tensor named Di. We want minimize the image structure similarity between the four channels of Di, so we define a custom loss function using SSIM. We calculate the SSIM values between every two channels of Di, and take the sum as the final loss.
the SSIM function code is from https://github.com/VainF/pytorch-msssim.
In the beginning, we did not concern about the different of value distribution between each channel, and the code is :

``````criterionSSIM = ssim.SSIM(data_range=1, channel=4)  //Construct the SSIM criterion
T1 = D.clone().detach()
l1 = T1[:, 0, :, :]
l2 = T1[:, 1, :, :]
l3 = T1[:, 2, :, :]
l4 = T1[:, 3, :, :]
tmp1 = torch.stack([l2, l3, l4, l1], 1)
loss1 = criterionSSIM(fusion_out, tmp1)
tmp2 = torch.stack([l3, l4, l1, l2], 1)
loss2 = criterionSSIM(fusion_out, tmp2)
tmp3 = torch.stack([l4, l1, l2, l3], 1)
loss3 = criterionSSIM(fusion_out, tmp3)
lossSSIM = (loss1+loss2+loss3)
``````

But we found that the SSIM loss go down below zero quickly. To avoid negative SSIM, we normalize every channel of Di to [0, 1], and the code changes to :

``````criterionSSIM = ssim.SSIM(data_range=1, channel=4)  //Construct the SSIM criterion
B, C, H, W = D.shape
for b in range(0, B):
for c in range(0, C):
D[b][c] = D[b][c] / torch.max(D[b][c])       // normalize every channel to [0, 1]
T1 = D.clone().detach()
l1 = T1[:, 0, :, :]
l2 = T1[:, 1, :, :]
l3 = T1[:, 2, :, :]
l4 = T1[:, 3, :, :]
tmp1 = torch.stack([l2, l3, l4, l1], 1)
loss1 = criterionSSIM(fusion_out, tmp1)
tmp2 = torch.stack([l3, l4, l1, l2], 1)
loss2 = criterionSSIM(fusion_out, tmp2)
tmp3 = torch.stack([l4, l1, l2, l3], 1)
loss3 = criterionSSIM(fusion_out, tmp3)
lossSSIM = (loss1+loss2+loss3)
``````

Then the complier reports:

RuntimeError: one of the variables needed for gradient computation has been modified by an inplace operation: [torch.cuda.FloatTensor [224, 224]], which is output 0 of SelectBackward, is at version 128; expected version 127 instead. Hint: enable anomaly detection to find the operation that failed to compute its gradient, with torch.autograd.set_detect_anomaly(True).

We think this error is caused by the normalization action:

``````  for b in range(0, B):
for c in range(0, C):
D[b][c] = D[b][c] / torch.max(D[b][c])       // normalize every channel to [0, 1]
``````

But as a rookie, we donāt know how to fix it. I checked out#6934but got no clue. If anybody here can help us, that will be very appreciated and thankful.

I would recommend you to do the following to avoid for loops and in-place ops:

``````D_ = D.view(B,C,-1)
D_max = D_.max(dim=2)[0].unsqueeze(2).unsqueeze(2)
D_norm = (D/D_max).view(*D.shape)
``````

Anyway if you want to follow the for-loop approach you just need to use

``````D[b][c] = D[b][c].clone()
``````

As you are modifying tensorās value iteratively, which affects backprop.

1 Like

THANK YOUļ¼ļ¼
I will try that and report the resultć
And I donāt prefer the for-loop approach ļ¼ I just do not know the elegant way ļ¼ ļ¼ļ¼

The code works, and` loss.backwards()` reports no error now.
THANK YOU!

The SSIM values still go below zero after batchs. I have to find a way to fix that now.