How to optimize inception model with auxiliary classifiers

In the Inception model, in addition to final softmax classifier, there are a few auxiliary classifiers to overcome the vanishing gradient problem.

My question is

How can I compute the loss with all the classifiers? Can anyone give me an example?

output, aux_output = models.inception_v3(input)
loss = criterion(output, aux_output, target_var)


output, aux_output = models.inception_v3(input)
loss1 = criterion(output, target_var)
loss2 = criterion(aux_output, target_var)
loss = loss1 + loss2

your second code snippet is the way to go.

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usually one of the losses is weighted lower. So you can do:

loss = loss1 + 0.4 * loss2 # 0.4 is weight for auxillary classifier

thank you soooooo much!!!

thanks for giving the loss. but how to get the final predict with the two output(output and aux_output)? I need to compute the accuracy.


the loss of auxiliary classifiers is used to overcome the vanishing gradient problem and it has nothing to do with prediction. the prediction is made by the final classifier.

but how to get the prediction made by the final classfier, is it ‘output, aux_output = models.inception_v3(input)’ as you stated in the above.
the below is my code:

any idea for getting the prediction?

def forward(self, x):
    return(output0, output1, output2)

output0, output1, output2 = model(inputs)
_, preds = torch.max(, 1)
loss0 = criterion(output0, labels)
loss1 = criterion(output1, labels)
loss2 = criterion(output2, labels)
loss = loss2 + 0.3 * loss0 + 0.3 * loss1

output2 is the prediction of the final classifier, and the other two outputs are the ones of auxiliary classifiers. The overall

As you can see, I made predictions through the output2.

“At inference time, these auxiliary networks are discarded.” as the paper said.

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helpful code and hint, thank you!

@micklexqg: I followed this, added to the imagenet example script to run on my own data over googlenet (from vision/models/

Imagenet script organization:

def main()
def main_worker()
def train()
   outputs, aux_outputs = model(inputs)
   loss1 = criterion(outputs, target)
   loss2 = criterion(aux_outputs, target)
   loss = loss1 + 0.4*loss2
def validate()
   outputs = model(inputs)
   loss = criterion(outputs, target)
def adjust_learning_rate()
def accuracy()

Then the execution throws this error:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "", line 406, in <module>
  File "", line 113, in main
    main_worker(args.gpu, ngpus_per_node, args)
  File "", line 239, in main_worker
    train(train_loader, model, criterion, optimizer, epoch, args)
  File "", line 279, in train
    output, aux_outputs = model(input)
ValueError: too many values to unpack (expected 2)

any idea?

if model() is GoogleNet.forward(), you need to make sure GoogleNet.aux_logits=True. Otherwise it would just return output, rather than (output, aux_outputs). Giving you that error.

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I figured out that, GooLeNet has two auxoutputs, and worked by these modifications. So,

aux1, aux2, outputs = model(inputs)
loss1 = criterion(aux1, target)
loss2 = criterion(aux2, target)
loss3 = criterion(outputs, target)
loss = loss3 + 0.3 * (loss1+loss2)