Optimization of performance


I am relatively new to deep learning with PyTorch. I tried to build a multi-layer feed-forward neural network that takes a tf-idf vector of a news title and outputs 0 or 1 whether the title is fake or not. The dataset used for the task was the onion dataset. Unfortunately, the part of preprocessing cannot change. So any optimization can be done on the model’s architecture. My code is this:

import sys
import time
import nltk
import numpy
import pandas
import torch.nn
import statistics
import torch.utils
import sklearn.metrics
import sklearn.model_selection
import sklearn.feature_extraction.text

# preprocessing
input_dataframe = pandas.read_csv('onion-or-not.csv', encoding='utf-8')
tokenized_vector = dict()
for i in input_dataframe.index:
    tokenized_vector[i] = nltk.word_tokenize(input_dataframe.loc[i][0])
stemmer = nltk.PorterStemmer()
stopwords = set(nltk.corpus.stopwords.words('english'))
for tokens in tokenized_vector:
    for counter, token in enumerate(tokenized_vector[tokens]):
        if stemmer.stem(tokenized_vector[tokens][counter]) not in stopwords:
            tokenized_vector[tokens][counter] = stemmer.stem(tokenized_vector[tokens][counter])
vectorizer = sklearn.feature_extraction.text.TfidfVectorizer()
preprocessed_tokenized_vector = list()
for i in tokenized_vector:
    preprocessed_tokenized_vector.append(' '.join(tokenized_vector[i]))
X = vectorizer.fit_transform(preprocessed_tokenized_vector)
tf_idf_df = pandas.DataFrame(X.todense(), columns=vectorizer.get_feature_names(), dtype=numpy.float16)
preprocessed_data = pandas.concat([tf_idf_df, input_dataframe.iloc[:, 1:]], axis=1, sort=False)
print('Total size of dataframe: ', round(sys.getsizeof(preprocessed_data) / 2**20, 2), 'MB')
del X
del tf_idf_df
del preprocessed_tokenized_vector
del tokenized_vector
del input_dataframe
cols = pandas.DataFrame(preprocessed_data.columns[:-1].tolist(), columns=['tokens'])

# initialize dataset
X = preprocessed_data.iloc[:, :-1]
Y = pandas.concat([preprocessed_data.iloc[:, -1], abs(preprocessed_data.iloc[:, -1] - 1)], axis=1).astype(numpy.int8)
del preprocessed_data
Y.columns = ['valid', 'fake']
x_fit, x_test, y_fit, y_test = \
    sklearn.model_selection.train_test_split(X, Y,
                                             test_size=0.25, random_state=42)
x_train, x_val, y_train, y_val = \
del x_fit
del y_fit

# prepare data for pytorch
x_train = torch.from_numpy(x_train.to_numpy()).float()
y_train = torch.from_numpy(y_train.to_numpy()).float()
train_dataset = torch.utils.data.TensorDataset(x_train, y_train)
del x_train
del y_train
x_val = torch.from_numpy(x_val.to_numpy()).float()
y_val = torch.from_numpy(y_val.to_numpy()).float()
val_dataset = torch.utils.data.TensorDataset(x_val, y_val)
del x_val
del y_val
x_test = torch.from_numpy(x_test.to_numpy()).float()
y_test = torch.from_numpy(y_test.to_numpy()).float()
test_dataset = torch.utils.data.TensorDataset(x_test, y_test)
del x_test
del y_test
train_loader = torch.utils.data.DataLoader(train_dataset)
val_loader = torch.utils.data.DataLoader(val_dataset)
test_loader = torch.utils.data.DataLoader(test_dataset)
del train_dataset
del val_dataset
del test_dataset
X = torch.from_numpy(X.to_numpy()).float()
Y = torch.from_numpy(Y.to_numpy()).float()

# model architecture - This part must be optimized
model = torch.nn.Sequential(
    torch.nn.Linear(X.shape[1], 1024),
    torch.nn.Linear(1024, 512),
    torch.nn.Linear(512, 2),
criterion = torch.nn.BCELoss()
learning_rate = 1e-5
optimizer = torch.optim.Adam(model.parameters(), lr=learning_rate)
def get_device():
    device = None
    if torch.cuda.is_available():
        device = torch.device('cuda')
        device = torch.device('cpu')
    return device
device = get_device()
early_stopping = False
prevent = 5
consecutive = False
message = ' '
epoch = 0
epochs = 50
prev_mean_valid_loss = numpy.Inf
start = 0
train_loss = []
valid_loss = []
history = []

#fit model
print('Time: ', start, ' (in seconds)')
while not early_stopping and epoch < epochs:
    if epoch == 0:
        start = time.time()

    # prep model for training
    for x_train, y_train in train_loader:
        # forward pass
        y_hat = model(x_train.to(device))
        # calculate the loss
        loss = criterion(y_hat, y_train.to(device))
        # clear the gradients of all optimized variables
        # backward pass
        # perform a single optimization step (parameter update)
        # update running training loss
    # shut down autograd to begin evaluation
    with torch.no_grad():
        # prep model for evaluation
        for x_val, y_val in val_loader:
            # forward pass
            y_hat = model(x_val.to(device))
            # calculate the loss
            loss = criterion(y_hat, y_val.to(device))
            # update running validation loss
    # early stopping conditional
    if prev_mean_valid_loss <= statistics.mean(valid_loss):
        if consecutive is True:
            prevent -= 1
        consecutive = True
        if prevent < 0:
            early_stopping = True
            message = '\tPrevious average Validation error was lower than\
                current Validation error'
        consecutive = False

    # print results after 2 epochs
    if epoch % 2 == 1:
        end = time.time()
        print('Epoch: ', epoch+1, '\t Time: +', end-start, '\t Training\
        loss: ', statistics.mean(train_loss), '\t Validation loss: ',
        start = time.time()

    # update epoch's validation loss variable
    prev_mean_valid_loss = statistics.mean(valid_loss)

    # early stopping message
    if early_stopping is True:
        print('\t\tStopping at epoch: ', epoch + 1, message)
        epoch = epochs - 1
    epoch += 1

# test model
test_loss = []
# initialize timer
start = time.time()
# test model
with torch.no_grad():
    for x_test, y_test in test_loader:
        yhat = model(x_test.to(device))
        loss = criterion(yhat, y_test.to(device))
# end time checkpoint
end = time.time()
# print test results
print('\tTime: {:.10} \tTest Loss: {:.15f}'.format(end-start,

The problem is that the model’s architecture seems to be too “heavy”. Is there any possibility that the architecture of the model could be optimized in memory and computation complexity?

Thanks in advance !

If you want to reduce the model capacity, you could lower the number of hidden neurons in the model.

Also note that nn.BCELoss is expecting a single neuron with a sigmoid applied on it for a binary classification use case.
So you would have to change the last linear layer to nn.Linear(512, 1) and use nn.Sigmoid. Or remove the softmax and sigmoid, return the raw logits, and use nn.BCEWithLogitsLoss`.

If you want to use two neurons for the binary classification, you could keep the last linear layer, remove the softmax, and use nn.CrossEntropyLoss.

Thank you very much ! My code is now executable. I changed the output layer of my model and there is now only one neuron that uses Sigmoid activation. I also reduced the number of hidden neurons. The new model architecture can be examined below:
There is one small bit that is still ambiguous. The validation loss increases in every epoch, while the training loss decreases. Are there any more problems?
Thanks in advance !

Good to hear it’s working now!
Your model might be overfitting, so you could try to add regularization techniques such as dropout layers, weight decay etc.

I used a Dropout layer between the hidden and the output layer with .1 probability and added weight decay of .2 and it works like a charm! Thanks again!