Hello!
Recently I use a CNN to estimate whether two images are similar or not. But a problem occurred during training. When I train the network, the train loss usually kept 0 or 0.69 without any trend of decline. Hope there are someone can help me…
The size of the input image is 246x192.
the network and training code are as follows:
network:

``````import math
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.nn.functional as F

class BasicBlock(nn.Module):
expansion = 1

def __init__(self, inplanes, planes, stride=1, downsample=None):
super(BasicBlock, self).__init__()
self.conv1 = nn.Conv2d(inplanes, planes, 3, padding=1)
self.bn1 = nn.BatchNorm2d(planes)
self.relu = nn.ReLU(inplace=True)
self.conv2 = nn.Conv2d(planes, planes, 3, padding=1)
self.bn2 = nn.BatchNorm2d(planes)
self.downsample = nn.Conv2d(inplanes, planes, 1)
self.stride = stride

def forward(self, x):
residual = x
out = self.conv1(x)
out = self.bn1(out)
out = self.relu(out)
out = self.conv2(out)
out = self.bn2(out)

if self.downsample is not None:
residual = self.downsample(x)

out += residual
out = self.relu(out)
return out

class ResCompare(nn.Module):
def __init__(self):
super(ResCompare, self).__init__()
self.conv1 = nn.Conv2d(2, 32, 5, padding=2, bias=False)
self.bn1 = nn.BatchNorm2d(32)
self.relu1 = nn.ReLU(inplace=True)
self.max_pool = nn.MaxPool2d(2)
self.layer1 = BasicBlock(32, 64)
self.layer2 = BasicBlock(64, 128)
self.layer3 = BasicBlock(128, 256)
self.layer4 = BasicBlock(256, 512)
self.fc1 = nn.Linear(92160, 2)
self.dropout = nn.Dropout2d(p=0.5)

for m in self.modules():
if isinstance(m, nn.Conv2d):
n = m.kernel_size * m.kernel_size * m.out_channels
m.weight.data.normal_(0, math.sqrt(2. / n))
elif isinstance(m, nn.BatchNorm2d):
m.weight.data.fill_(1)
m.bias.data.zero_()

def forward(self, x):
x = self.relu1(self.bn1(self.conv1(x)))
x = self.max_pool(x)
x = self.layer1(x)
x = F.max_pool2d(x, 2)
x = self.layer2(x)
x = F.max_pool2d(x, 2)
x = self.layer3(x)
x = F.max_pool2d(x, 2)
x = self.layer4(x)

x = x.view(x.size(), -1)
x = self.fc1(x)
x = self.dropout(x)

return x
``````

train:

``````import os
import torch
import sys
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.utils.data as Data
import rescompare
import dataprocess

os.environ["CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES"] = "0"
sys.path.append('twochannel')
N = 5
learning_rate=0.0001

cnn = rescompare.ResCompare().cuda()
loss_func = nn.CrossEntropyLoss()
print(cnn)

x_train, y_train = dataprocess.data("train")
train_data = Data.TensorDataset(x_train, y_train)
dataset=train_data,
batch_size=1,
shuffle=True,
)
modelpath='E:/Data/torchmodel/2019_09_20_samepeople_epoch5.pth'

for epoch in range(0, N):
for step, (x_batch, y_batch) in enumerate(train_loader):
cnn.train()
x_var = Variable(x_batch).cuda()
y_var = Variable(y_batch).cuda().long()
netout = cnn(x_var)
loss = loss_func(netout, y_var)
loss.backward()
optimizer.step()
if step % 36 == 0:
print('epoch {},step {}/50,Train Loss: {:.6f}'.format(epoch + 1, (step // 36) + 1, loss.item()))
print(netout)
print('\n')
torch.save(cnn.state_dict(), modelpath)
``````

Your code looks like a classification task and I’m not sure where you are checking, if two images look similar or not.
I would recommend to scale down your use case a bit and try to overfit a small data sample (e.g. single batch) with your model and training routine.
If that doesn’t work, there might be a bug (I haven’s seen yet) or you would have to adapt e.g. the model architecture.
Is the last dropout layer on the model output on purpose or are you missing another linear layer?

During training I set positive samples whose labels are 1 and negative samples whose labels are 0. The positive sample includes two images which I think are similar.
The batch_size I use is 1.
I am not sure if I should put a Dropout Layer behind the FC Layer. The original purpose I do this was to avoid over-fitting. In addition, I am not sure if the output channels of FC Layer should be 2. Now I tend to set it 1.
And to my surprise, when I use the training model to do my follow-up work, the result is not bad.

Dropout is usually a good idea. I would just be careful about setting it at the output, as your logits will be zeroed out.
If you are using `nn.CrossEntropyLoss`, and are dealing with two classes, the output of your model should have the shape `[batch_size, 2]` and the targets should contain the class indices in the range `[0, 1]` with the shape `[batch_size]`.

The shape of the output of the network is [batch_size, 2] exactly. But the question is that the value of the output is not usually in the range [0, 1], which confused me a lot. For example, the output can get a strange value such as [9.6655, -8.4452]. Does it mean that my model architecture is wrong?
In addition, today I set the batch_size 2 and add a BN Layer behind the FC Layer. It makes the value of train loss does not keep 0 or 0.69 anymore. Instead, the absolute value of the output can be in the range [0, 1] with the existence of minus . What’s more, the train loss still has not a trend of decline.

The output values of your model are logits, so they do not have a bound on their values.
`nn.CrossEntropyLoss` will apply a `F.log_softmax` on the outputs, so that they will be normalized to log probabilities before feeding them to `nn.NLLLoss`.
Your example output value just indicates that class0 is more likely for the sample than class1.

If your training still doesn’t work, I would still suggest to try to overfit a small sample and check, if it’s working.

Thank you very much for your explanation about the output value! It is very useful for me.
Talk about your suggestion about training, do you mean that I can try to cut the original images into patches to train and check?

No, just use very few samples (e.g. select 10 samples from your dataset) and run the code.
If your model cannot overfit these 10 samples perfectly (loss converges towards zero, accuracy towards 100%), then there might be another bug in the code or e.g. the hyperparameters, model architecture, etc. might not be working in your use case. This would be a good base for debugging the issue and make sure your model can overfit a small data sample before digging further into the code. Hello!
This is the train loss with few samples(72), and the epoch is 20. Does it mean my model has over-fitted the samples?
There is another question I am not sure that when we talk about the trend of loss, we use the train loss of every step or the average value of the train loss of every epoch?