PyTorch results differ slightly from Keras

I’m working on Kaggle Quora challenge. PyTorch proves to be a little faster than Keras and that’s why I want to use it instead of Keras. But the results are slightly worse than in Keras, not much in absolute terms, but enough. The results are repeatable and I am sure that it’s real. For the past week I’ve been trying to replicate the Keras result and I’m coming closer but I’m still a bit off. The final ensemble is made up of 6 models. The metric is log loss, and it’s calculated over 10 stratified folds created with the same seed.

The results are:

PyTorch 1 0.09402009289

PyTorch 2 0.09401799725

Keras 1 0.09383706382

Keras 2 0.09385460710

I load the data with identical functions and I initialize the Pytorch weights using this function, minus the embed.weight part. I use the same batch_size and every other variable I can thik of.

Keras sample model

inp = Input(shape=(maxlen,))
x = Embedding(max_features, embed_size, weights=[embedding_matrix])(inp)
x = Bidirectional(CuDNNGRU(128, return_sequences=True))(x)
x = Bidirectional(CuDNNGRU(64, return_sequences=True))(x)
x = GlobalMaxPooling1D()(x)
x = Dense(1, activation="sigmoid")(x)
model = Model(inputs=inp, outputs=x)

optimizer = Adamax(lr=0.002, beta_1=0.9, beta_2=0.999, epsilon=None, decay=0.0)
model.compile(loss='binary_crossentropy', optimizer=optimizer, metrics=['accuracy']), train_y, batch_size=192, epochs=3)           

Pytorch same model:

train_loader =, batch_size=192, shuffle=True)

class NeuralNet(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):
        super(NeuralNet, self).__init__()
        hidden_size1 = 128
        hidden_size2 = 64
        self.embedding = nn.Embedding(max_features, embed_size)
        self.embedding.weight = nn.Parameter(torch.tensor(embedding_matrix, dtype=torch.float32))
        self.embedding.weight.requires_grad = True
        self.gru1 = nn.GRU(embed_size, hidden_size1, bidirectional=True, batch_first=True)
        self.gru2 = nn.GRU(hidden_size1*2, hidden_size2, bidirectional=True, batch_first=True)
        self.out = nn.Linear(hidden_size2*2, 1)
    def forward(self, x):
        h_embedding = self.embedding(x)
        h_gru1, _ = self.gru1(h_embedding)
        h_gru2, _ = self.gru2(h_gru1)
        max_pool, _ = torch.max(h_gru2, 1)
        out = self.out(max_pool)
        out = torch.sigmoid(out)
        return out

model = NeuralNet()
loss_fn = torch.nn.BCELoss()
optimizer = torch.optim.Adamax(model.parameters())

 for epoch in range(3):
    avg_loss = 0.
    for x_batch, y_batch in train_loader:
        y_pred = model(x_batch)
        loss = loss_fn(y_pred, y_batch)
        avg_loss += loss.item() / len(train_loader)

Just a quick update. This is how the scores in ensamble improve with each model added. The keras ensambles are ran on two different machines, with different keras and tf versions. The Pytorch models are slightly different: one is with BCEWithLogitsLoss, the other is with BCELoss after a sigmoid layer. Yet the difference is still there, and consistent. There are other tests that I’ve done, with the same result.

The interesting part is that the PyTorch models taken individually, on average, score better than the keras models.

Keras average score: 0.09892 and 0.09898
PyTorch average score: 0.09890 and 0.09884

My intuition says that keras is introducing some randomness that slightly decreases the score of each model, but increses the diversity in the ensamble and improves the final score.

Based on your code snippet you could introduce a bias in you avg_loss calculation, if the length of your dataset is not divisible without a remainder by your batch size.
Currently you are summing the loss (averaged over the batch) and dividing by the length of your DataLoader. However, if the last batch is smaller, this might introduce a small discrepancy.

Besides that I guess other operations might introduce some noise (e.g. different CUDA/cuDNN versions for PyTorch and Tensorflow) etc. and these might be quite hard to debug.