RuntimeError: element 0 of tensors does not require grad and does not have a gra d_fn

I have been using PyTorch since about 2 weeks now (mainly due to the computing courses I have taken). But, I am not able to debug and figure out why my network is not learning.

If I flatten both target and prediction, I am getting some error. If I convert both to one hot, I get multi-target not supported error. Now I am getting tensor grad error. I am finding this difficult to debug because, if I enable loss_tensor.requires_grad = True, I would get a network that wouldn’t minimise loss. I am not sure what I am doing wrong here.

Also, I have a bit of background with Keras and I am finding PyTorch really difficult although I do believe this PyTorch will help me in the long run as I can get fine-grained control.

import torch
import torchvision
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.nn.functional as F
from torch import optim
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from keras.datasets import cifar10

def oneHotEncode(labels1D, num_classes):
    labels1D[labels1D < 0] = 0; labels1D[labels1D >= num_classes] = num_classes - 1
    labels2D = np.zeros([labels1D.shape[0], num_classes])
    np.put(labels2D, labels1D + num_classes * np.arange(labels1D.shape[0]), 1)
    return labels2D

#(x_train_keras, y_train_keras), (x_test_keras, y_test_keras) = cifar100.load_data(label_mode="fine")
(x_train_keras, y_train_keras), (x_test_keras, y_test_keras) = cifar10.load_data()
x_train_keras, x_test_keras = np.mean(x_train_keras, axis = 3), np.mean(x_test_keras, axis = 3)
X_train_data, y_train_data = x_train_keras.reshape(-1, 32 * 32), y_train_keras
X_valid_data, y_valid_data = x_test_keras.reshape(-1, 32 * 32), y_test_keras

x_train_keras, x_test_keras = x_train_keras / 255.0, x_test_keras / 255.0

print(np.min(x_train_keras), np.max(x_train_keras))

n_epochs = 10
batch_size = 32
lr = 0.1
num_classes = 10

s = np.hstack([X_train_data, y_train_data])
X_train = s[:, :-y_train_data.shape[1]]
y_train = s[:, X_train_data.shape[1]:(X_train_data.shape[1] + y_train_data.shape[1])]

model = nn.Sequential(nn.Linear(X_train.shape[1], 256),
    nn.Linear(256, y_train.shape[1]))

criterion = nn.CrossEntropyLoss()
optimiser = optim.SGD(model.parameters(), lr = lr)

lossList, accuracyList = [list(), list()]

for eachEpoch in range(n_epochs):
    accuracy, loss = [0, 0]
    for eachBatch_i in range(int(X_train.shape[0]/batch_size)):
        X_train_ = X_train[eachBatch_i * batch_size:(eachBatch_i + 1) * batch_size, :]
        y_train_ = y_train[eachBatch_i * batch_size:(eachBatch_i + 1) * batch_size, :]

        X_train1 = torch.from_numpy(X_train_).float()
        y_train1 = torch.from_numpy(y_train_.flatten()).long()

        y_pred = model(X_train1)        
        y_pred1 ="int")

        y_pred2 = torch.from_numpy(oneHotEncode(y_pred1, num_classes))
        loss_tensor = criterion(y_pred2, y_train1.flatten())
        #loss_tensor.requires_grad = True
        loss_ = loss_tensor.item()

        #print(, y_train_.shape)
        accuracy = accuracy + np.sum( == y_train_.flatten())
        loss = loss + loss_

    accuracy = accuracy / X_train.shape[0]
    loss = loss / X_train.shape[0]

    print("Epoch = " + str(eachEpoch), "Loss = " + str(loss), "Accuracy = " + str(accuracy))

plt.title("Accuracy vs Epochs")

plt.title("Loss vs Epochs")

Thanks in advance!

You are detaching the prediction tensor here:

y_pred1 ="int")

Don’t use the .data attribute, as it may have unwanted side effects.
Also, once you leave PyTorch and use other libraries such as numpy, Autograd won’t be able to automatically create the backward pass for you, so you would need to implement the backward function manually. Instead pass y_pred directly to your criterion.

For a multi-class classification with nn.CrossEntropyLoss the output of your model should have the shape [batch_size, nb_classes], while the target should be a LongTensor in the shape [batch_size] containing the class indices in the range [0, nb_classes-1].

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