[Solved] Reverse gradients in backward pass

Hi,

Wouldn’t it be most elegant to just have a GradientRevesrse Layer?

class GradReverse(Function):
    def forward(self, x):
        return x

    def backward(self, grad_output):
        return (-grad_output)

def grad_reverse(x):
    return GradReverse()(x)
9 Likes

Indeed, it would be most elegant. The reason I used a hook was because it was suggested to use those when manually adjusting gradients. I think though for this problem that could be a nice solution.

I’m new to PyTorch so defining custom layers is something I have never done. After running your snippet, could I use the layer by simply treating it as a normal layer? That is:

class domain_classifier(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):
        super(domain_classifier, self).__init__()
        self.fc1 = nn.Linear(1200, 100) 
        self.fc2 = nn.Linear(100, 1)
    
    def forward(self, x):
        x = grad_reverse(x)
        x = F.relu(self.fc1(x))
        x = self.fc2(x)
        return F.sigmoid(x)

I think that should work.

Also, I just realized that Function should be defined in a different way in the newer versions of pytorch:


class GradReverse(Function):
    @staticmethod
    def forward(ctx, x):
        return x.view_as(x)

    @staticmethod
    def backward(ctx, grad_output):
        return grad_output.neg()

def grad_reverse(x):
    return GradReverse.apply(x)

The return x.view_as(x) seems to be necessary, because otherwise backward is not being called, I guess that as optimization Autograd checks if the Function modified the tensor to see if backward should be called.

18 Likes

Hi Daniel,

Did you manage to get this work? if yes, can you eventually share your code of the training + the class for domain classifier?

I am struggling to make mine work :weary:

thanks in advance
A.

Hi Alain,

With the help of Marcin’s awesome solution (thanks!) I have been able to reproduce results from Bousmalis et al. (2016). I get 72% (77% in Bousmalis) on USPS with an MNIST-trained classifier, and then 86% (85% in Bousmalis) on USPS using the DANN with Marcin’s reversal layer. I had to adjust the code provided by Marcin a bit to make it work. I am using PyTorch version 0.1.12_2, so maybe that had to do with it. This did the trick:

class GradReverse(Function):
    def forward(self, x):
        return x.view_as(x)

    def backward(self, grad_output):
        return (grad_output * -lambd)

def grad_reverse(x):
    return GradReverse()(x)

class domain_classifier(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):
        super(domain_classifier, self).__init__()
        self.fc1 = nn.Linear(1200, 100) 
        self.fc2 = nn.Linear(100, 1)
        self.drop = nn.Dropout2d(0.25)

    def forward(self, x):
        x = grad_reverse(x)
        x = F.leaky_relu(self.drop(self.fc1(x)))
        x = self.fc2(x)
        return F.sigmoid(x)

To train the model, standard PyTorch rules apply obviously. I did implement some learning rate and lambda parameter adjustments as proposed in the paper (Ganin et al., 2016). Here’s the code:

for i in range(num_epochs):
    source_gen = batch_gen(source_batches, source_idx, Xs_train, ys_train)
    target_gen = batch_gen(target_batches, target_idx, Xt_train, None)

    # iterate over batches
    for (xs, ys) in source_gen:
        
        # update lambda and learning rate as suggested in the paper
        p = float(j) / num_steps
        lambd = 2. / (1. + np.exp(-10. * p)) - 1
        lr = 0.01 / (1. + 10 * p)**0.75
        d_optimizer.lr = lr
        c_optimizer.lr = lr
        f_optimizer.lr = lr
        
        # exit if batch size incorrect, get next target batch
        if len(xs) != batch_size / 2:
            continue
        xt = next(target_gen)
        
        # concatenate source and target batch
        x = torch.cat([xs, xt], 0)
        
        # 1) train feature_extractor and class_classifier on source batch
        # reset gradients
        f_ext.zero_grad()
        c_clf.zero_grad()
        
        # calculate class_classifier predictions on batch xs
        c_out = c_clf(f_ext(xs).view(batch_size // 2, -1))
        
        # optimize feature_extractor and class_classifier on output
        f_c_loss = c_crit(c_out, ys.float())
        f_c_loss.backward(retain_variables = True)
        c_optimizer.step()
        f_optimizer.step()
        
        # 2) train feature_extractor and domain_classifier on full batch x
        # reset gradients
        f_ext.zero_grad()
        d_clf.zero_grad()
        
        # calculate domain_classifier predictions on batch x
        d_out = d_clf(f_ext(x).view(batch_size, -1))
        
        # optimize feature_extractor and domain_classifier with output
        f_d_loss = d_crit(d_out, yd.float())
        f_d_loss.backward(retain_variables = True)
        d_optimizer.step()
        f_optimizer.step()

Thanks again, Marcin, for your solution.
And Alain, I hope this helps you build the model.

Daniel

7 Likes

I’m glad to see it worked! I was interested in this model myself, it’s cool to see that You were able to reproduce the results.

Cheers!

1 Like

Thanks for the answer. This was indeed very helpful.

A.

class GradReverse(Function):
def forward(self, x):
return x.view_as(x)

def backward(self, grad_output):
    return (grad_output * -lambd)

def grad_reverse(x):
return GradReverse()(x)

running the above snippet of code gives the error

class GradReverse(Function):
TypeError: Error when calling the metaclass bases
module.init() takes at most 2 arguments (3 given)

but i gave single 2d tensor as input,
what are the two inputs it takes, x,lambd ?

Hi,

In the implementation described above lambd is a global variable that is not passed to grad_reverse. If you passed lambd to this function this would be the reason you gave 1 argument too much.

I did not like to use lambd globally and that is why I added a constructor to the GradReverse class which asks for the lambd value.

class GradReverse(Function):
    def __init__(self, lambd):
        self.lambd = lambd

    def forward(self, x):
        return x.view_as(x)

    def backward(self, grad_output):
        return (grad_output * -self.lambd)

def grad_reverse(x, lambd):
    return GradReverse(lambd)(x)

If you want to change the lambda function dynamically during training, you can add a set_lambda method in the network:

def set_lambda(self, lambd):
    self.lambd = lambd

so you can change the lambda value by calling:

model.set_lambda(lambd)

Now, you can use the grad_reverse function as a normal layer in the network:

def forward(self, x):
    x = grad_reverse(x, self.lambd)

I hope this works for you.

Daniel

2 Likes

yes …it worked…

Hello,

What if I want to add lambda here? It seems that I can’t initialize the function with lambda in the new version of PyTorch.

Thanks for sharing your code, Daniel. Very helpful. Two questions:

  1. In the original paper, Bousmalis et al. use the squared Frobenius norm to ensure the shared and private subspaces are unlikely to encode redundant information. Did you include this loss term (i.e., the difference loss) in your loss function? If so, would you mind sharing the code of your loss function?

  2. Is there a solution where you update the feature extractor once only with losses collected from the decoder and classifier (with a custom loss that combines all loss terms, especially the difference and similarity loss terms)?

Thank you!

Hi, I am wondering why the function grad_reverse is needed here ? Is it possible to just treat the module as if a Linear layer in the model ?

Hi, I use the Reverse Gradient as mentioned in the reply, and I work well with single GPU, but I meet some bug when i use DataParallel with gradient reverse layer.

  File "train_0.py", line 352, in run_train
    loss.backward()
  File "/home/user/miniconda3/envs/torch/lib/python3.6/site-packages/torch/autograd/variable.py", line 120, in backward
    torch.autograd.backward(self, gradient, retain_graph, create_graph)
  File "/home/user/miniconda3/envs/torch/lib/python3.6/site-packages/torch/autograd/__init__.py", line 81, in backward
    variables, grad_variables, retain_graph, create_graph)
RuntimeError: arguments are located on different GPUs at /home/user/pytorch/aten/src/THC/generated/../generic/THCTensorMathPointwise.cu:231

Hi Daniel,

I have a silly question. Could you not simply change the sign of the ‘adversarial’ loss term (the one resulting from the purple blocks in the model) and bypass the need to implement custom layers?

1 Like

For me BartolomeD’s solution did not work with dataparallel. Following piece did work later. Posting here as it may help others

class GradReverse(Function):
    @staticmethod
    def forward(ctx, x,lambd):
        ctx.save_for_backward(lambd)
        return x.view_as(x)

    @staticmethod
    def backward(ctx, grad_output):
        lambd=ctx.saved_tensors[0]
        return grad_output.neg()*lambd, None

def grad_reverse(x,lambd):
    return GradReverse.apply(x,lambd)
2 Likes

Thank you for sharing your solution. However, this code snippet does not work for me. The error message shows that

TypeError: save_for_backward can only save variables, but argument 0 is of type float

I tried to change scale (which is lambd in your code) into a autograd.Variable, but the error remained. At the same time, it does not quite make sense to make a constant autograd.Variable.

However, converting the scale (aka. lambd) into a class variable got my code up and running. Here is my solution

class GradientReverse(torch.autograd.Function):
    scale = 1.0
    @staticmethod
    def forward(ctx, x):
        return x.view_as(x)

    @staticmethod
    def backward(ctx, grad_output):
        return GradientReverse.scale * grad_output.neg()
    
def grad_reverse(x, scale=1.0):
    GradientReverse.scale = scale
    return GradientReverse.apply(x)

I think this could also work for data parallel, but I have not tested yet (maybe some other day this week).

1 Like

I think an even simpler way to do this is to apply the detach() trick. Something like this:

x = something you have
y = -x + (x*2).detach()

Now we can use y instead of x. During backpropation the gradient will pass to x from y in an opposite direction of what it has at y.

Thanks for pointing out this issue @elanmart . I just tried in Pytorch 1.1, following this code, the backward is still not called. Any idea?

If you convert scale to scale = torch.tensor(1.0, requires_grad=False) it should work