Training loss is decreasing but training accuracy is constant

I’m running a model with pytorch and my model is running fine but the training accuracy is not increasing but on the other hand the training loss is decreasing. why?

I have tried for 10 epochs and

my code:

train_dataset = CustomDataset(x_train[:1000], y_train[:1000])
batch_size = 4
train_loader = DataLoader(train_dataset, batch_size=batch_size, shuffle=True)

num_classes = 2
num_epochs = 10

# Create an instance of the AnomalyDetector
model = AnomalyDetector()

# Define the loss function (negative log-likelihood)
criterion = nn.CrossEntropyLoss()

# Define the optimizer
optimizer = torch.optim.Adam(model.parameters(), lr=0.0001)

# Training loop
patience = 3
verbose = True

for epoch in range(num_epochs):
    train_loss = 0.0
    correct = 0
    total = 0

    for batch_data, batch_labels in train_loader:

        # Forward pass
        output = model(batch_data)
        batch_labels = batch_labels.view(-1)

        # Compute loss
        loss = criterion(output, batch_labels.long())

        # Backward pass and optimization

        output = model(batch_data)
        train_loss += criterion(output, batch_labels.long()).item()
        _, predicted = torch.max(, 1)
        total += batch_labels.size(0)
        correct += (predicted == batch_labels).sum().item()

    train_loss /= len(train_loader)
    accuracy = correct / total
    if verbose: 
        print(f"Epoch [{epoch+1}/{num_epochs}] | Train Loss: {train_loss:.4f} | Train Accuracy: {accuracy:.4f}")


Please check if your model output.
If model already calculates softmax probabilities, then either

  1. the loss function should be the NLL Loss and model output should be changed to log softmax activation
  2. Softmax should be removed before giving as input to the Cross entropy loss function, as it expects logits.
    Beyond that, please check the distribution of class labels in your dataset. It’s likely your model is predicting the majority class as the only output because the learning problem is hard. Need to then simplify the problem and increase capacity of the network.
1 Like

I tried both the approach but the accuracy is still staying constant at 0.7680.
Shape of my dataset:
X_train shape is:
torch.Size([65802, 4, 250, 1])
Y_train shape is:
torch.Size([65802, 1, 1])

X_val shape is:
torch.Size([16920, 4, 250, 1])
Y_val shape is:
torch.Size([16920, 1])

X_test shape is:
torch.Size([11281, 4, 250, 1])
Y_test shape is:
torch.Size([11281, 1])


x_train, x_val, y_train, y_val = train_test_split(features, labels, test_size=0.3, random_state=42)
x_val, x_test, y_val, y_test = train_test_split(x_val, y_val, test_size=0.4, random_state=42)

import torch
import torch.nn as nn
from import Dataset, DataLoader
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
import torch.nn.functional as F

class CustomDataset(Dataset):
    def __init__(self, features, labels):
        self.features = []
        for feature in features:
            if len(feature) >= 2:
        self.labels = labels
    def __len__(self):
        return len(self.features)
    def __getitem__(self, index):
        return self.features[index], self.labels[index]
class RelationAwareFeatureExtractor(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):
        super(RelationAwareFeatureExtractor, self).__init__()

        # ConvNet layers
        self.conv1 = nn.Conv2d(4, 16, kernel_size=3, stride=2, padding=1)
        self.pool1 = nn.MaxPool2d(kernel_size=1, stride=1)
        self.conv2 = nn.Conv2d(16, 64, kernel_size=3, stride=2, padding=1)
        self.pool2 = nn.MaxPool2d(kernel_size=1, stride=1)
        self.conv3 = nn.Conv2d(64, 125, kernel_size=3, stride=2, padding=1)                 
        self.fc1 = nn.Linear(125*8*4, 1024)
        self.fc2 = nn.Linear(1024, 128)

    def forward(self, x):
        x = self.conv1(x)
        x = F.relu(x)
        x = self.pool1(x)
        x = F.relu(self.conv2(x))
        x = self.pool2(x)
        x = F.relu(self.conv3(x))
        # Flatten the tensor before fully connected layers
        x = torch.flatten(x, start_dim=1)  # Flatten dimensions except batch dimension
        # Fully connected layers
        x = self.fc1(x)
        x = self.fc2(x)
        return x

class SelfAttention(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self, hidden_size):
        super(SelfAttention, self).__init__()
        self.W = nn.Linear(hidden_size,hidden_size)

    def forward(self, x):
        batch_size, seq_len = x.size()
        x = self.W(x)
        x = F.relu(x)
        return x

class ConditionalRandomFields(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self, hidden_size):
        super(ConditionalRandomFields, self).__init__()
        self.crf = nn.Linear(hidden_size, 2)

    def forward(self, x):
        x = self.crf(x)
        return x

class AnomalyDetector(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):
        super(AnomalyDetector, self).__init__()
        # Feature extractor
        self.feature_extractor = RelationAwareFeatureExtractor()

        # Self-attention layer
        self.self_attention = SelfAttention(128)

        # Conditional random fields layer
        self.conditional_random_fields = ConditionalRandomFields(128)

    def forward(self, x):
        # Extract features
        x = self.feature_extractor(x)
        x = self.self_attention(x)
        log_likelihood = self.conditional_random_fields(x)

        return log_likelihood

input_dim = 125
hidden_dim = 50
output_dim = 124

# Define the train and test datasets
train_dataset = CustomDataset(x_train[:1000], y_train[:1000])
val_dataset = CustomDataset(x_val[:300], y_val[:300])
test_dataset = CustomDataset(x_test[:100], y_test[:100])

# Define the train loader
batch_size = 4
train_loader = DataLoader(train_dataset, batch_size=batch_size, shuffle=True)
val_loader = DataLoader(val_dataset, batch_size=batch_size, shuffle=False)
test_loader = DataLoader(test_dataset, batch_size=batch_size, shuffle=False)

# Create an instance of the AnomalyDetector
model = AnomalyDetector()

# Define the loss function (negative log-likelihood)
criterion = nn.NLLLoss()

# Define the optimizer
optimizer = torch.optim.Adam(model.parameters(), lr=0.0001)