TypeError: Caught TypeError in DataLoader worker process 0.

TypeError: Caught TypeError in DataLoader worker process 0.

Original Traceback (most recent call last):

File “/home/hpc/rzku/mlvl109h/.conda/envs/CineVN/lib/python3.10/site-packages/torch/utils/data/_utils/worker.py”, line 308, in _worker_loop

data = fetcher.fetch(index)

File “/home/hpc/rzku/mlvl109h/.conda/envs/CineVN/lib/python3.10/site-packages/torch/utils/data/_utils/fetch.py”, line 54, in fetch

return self.collate_fn(data)

File “/home/hpc/rzku/mlvl109h/.conda/envs/CineVN/lib/python3.10/site-packages/torch/utils/data/_utils/collate.py”, line 265, in default_co>

return collate(batch, collate_fn_map=default_collate_fn_map)

File “/home/hpc/rzku/mlvl109h/.conda/envs/CineVN/lib/python3.10/site-packages/torch/utils/data/_utils/collate.py”, line 132, in collate

return elem_type(*(collate(samples, collate_fn_map=collate_fn_map) for samples in zip(*batch)))

File “/home/hpc/rzku/mlvl109h/.conda/envs/CineVN/lib/python3.10/site-packages/torch/utils/data/_utils/collate.py”, line 132, in

return elem_type(*(collate(samples, collate_fn_map=collate_fn_map) for samples in zip(*batch)))

File “/home/hpc/rzku/mlvl109h/.conda/envs/CineVN/lib/python3.10/site-packages/torch/utils/data/_utils/collate.py”, line 150, in collate

raise TypeError(default_collate_err_msg_format.format(elem_type))

TypeError: default_collate: batch must contain tensors, numpy arrays, numbers, dicts or lists; found <class ‘NoneType’>

Based on the stacktrace it seems your Dataset.__getitem__ method returns None instead of valid tensors or arrays, so could you check why this might be the case?
Are you using a custom Dataset and forgot to return the samples?

I am using custom dataset.

Copyright (c) Facebook, Inc. and its affiliates.
Copyright (c) Marc Vornehm <marc.vornehm@fau.de>.

Part of this source code is licensed under the MIT license found in the
LICENSE file in the root directory of this source tree.

import logging
import os
import pickle
import random
import re
import warnings
from pathlib import Path
from typing import Callable, Optional, Tuple

import h5py
with warnings.catch_warnings():  # ismrmrd adds a warning filter that causes all subsequent warnings to be printed even if they should be filtered
    import ismrmrd
import numpy as np
import torch
import torch.utils.data
import yaml

from .transforms import VarNetDataTransform

def fetch_dir(
    key: str, data_config_file: str | Path | os.PathLike = 'cinevn_dirs.yaml'
) -> Path:
    Data directory fetcher.

    This is a brute-force simple way to configure data directories for a
    project. Simply overwrite the variables for `data_path`,
    `coilsens_path`, `log_path`, and `cache_path` and this function will
    retrieve the requested path.

        key: key to retrieve path from data_config_file. Expected to be in
            ("data_path", "coilsens_path", "log_path", "cache_path").
        data_config_file: Optional; Default path config file to fetch path

        The path to the specified directory.
    data_config_file = Path(data_config_file)
    if not data_config_file.is_file():
        default_config = {
            'data_path': '',
            'coilsens_path': '',
            'log_path': '.',
            'cache_path': '.',
        with open(data_config_file, 'w') as f:
            yaml.dump(default_config, f)

        data_dir = default_config[key]

            f'Path config at {data_config_file.resolve()} does not exist. A template has been created for you. Please '
            f'enter the directory paths for your system to have defaults.',
        with open(data_config_file, 'r') as f:
            data_dir = yaml.safe_load(f)[key]

    # expand environment variables
    data_dir = os.path.expandvars(data_dir)

    return Path(data_dir)

def create_minimal_header(kspace: np.ndarray | torch.Tensor) -> ismrmrd.xsd.ismrmrdHeader:
    """Creates a minimal ISMRMRD header from k-space data. The header
    contains only the encoding information and a dummy TR value.

        kspace (np.ndarray | torch.Tensor): k-space data.

        ismrmrd.xsd.ismrmrdHeader: Minimal ISMRMRD header.
        'Creating minimal ISMRMRD header. This may lead to incorrect results. Please provide a real header instead.',
    encodedSpace = ismrmrd.xsd.encodingSpaceType(matrixSize=ismrmrd.xsd.matrixSizeType(
        x=kspace.shape[-2] * 2,  # 200% readout oversampling
    reconSpace = ismrmrd.xsd.encodingSpaceType(matrixSize=ismrmrd.xsd.matrixSizeType(
    encodingLimits = ismrmrd.xsd.encodingLimitsType(kspace_encoding_step_1=ismrmrd.xsd.limitType(
        maximum=kspace.shape[-1] - 1,
        center=kspace.shape[-1] // 2
    encoding = ismrmrd.xsd.encodingType(
    sequenceParameters = ismrmrd.xsd.sequenceParametersType(TR=[50])
    header = ismrmrd.xsd.ismrmrdHeader(
    return header

class SliceDataset(torch.utils.data.Dataset):
    A PyTorch Dataset that provides access to MR image slices.

    def __init__(
        root: str | os.PathLike,
        data_source: str,
        transform: Optional[Callable] = None,
        use_dataset_cache: bool = False,
        sample_rate: Optional[float] = None,
        volume_sample_rate: Optional[float] = None,
        dataset_cache_file: str | os.PathLike = 'dataset_cache.pkl',
        num_cols: Optional[Tuple[int]] = None,
        coilsens_path: Optional[Path] = None,
        num_espirit_maps: int = 1,
            root: Path to the dataset.
            data_source: Name of data set source.
            transform: Optional; A callable object that pre-processes the raw
                data into appropriate form. The transform function should take
                `kspace`, `target`, `attributes`, `filename`, and `slice` as
                inputs. `target` may be null for test data. If not given, a
                default transform will be used.
            use_dataset_cache: Whether to cache dataset metadata. This is very
                useful for large datasets like the brain data.
            sample_rate: Optional; A float between 0 and 1. This controls what fraction
                of the slices should be loaded. Defaults to 1 if no value is given.
                When creating a sampled dataset either set sample_rate (sample by slices)
                or volume_sample_rate (sample by volumes) but not both.
            volume_sample_rate: Optional; A float between 0 and 1. This controls what fraction
                of the volumes should be loaded. Defaults to 1 if no value is given.
                When creating a sampled dataset either set sample_rate (sample by slices)
                or volume_sample_rate (sample by volumes) but not both.
            dataset_cache_file: Optional; A file in which to cache dataset
                information for faster load times.
            num_cols: Optional; If provided, only slices with the desired
                number of columns will be considered.
            coilsens_path: Optional; Path to coil sensitivity maps.
            num_espirit_maps: The number of sets of ESPIRiT coil sensitivity maps to use (Soft-SENSE). Usually 1 or 2.
                Ignored if coilsens_path is None.
        if sample_rate is not None and volume_sample_rate is not None:
            raise ValueError(
                'either set sample_rate (sample by slices) or volume_sample_rate (sample by volumes) but not both'

        if transform is None:
            transform = VarNetDataTransform()

        dataset_cache_file = Path(dataset_cache_file)
        self.coilsens_path = coilsens_path
        self.num_espirit_maps = num_espirit_maps

        self.transform = transform
        if data_source in ['ocmr', 'freemax']:
            self.recons_key = 'reconstruction_weighted'
            raise RuntimeError(f'Unknown data source {data_source}')
        self.examples = []

        # set default sampling mode if none given
        if sample_rate is None:
            sample_rate = 1.0
        if volume_sample_rate is None:
            volume_sample_rate = 1.0

        # load dataset cache if we have and user wants to use it
        if dataset_cache_file.exists() and use_dataset_cache:
            with open(dataset_cache_file, 'rb') as f:
                dataset_cache = pickle.load(f)
            dataset_cache = {}

        # check if our dataset is in the cache
        # if there, use that metadata, if not, then regenerate the metadata
        if dataset_cache.get(root) is None or not use_dataset_cache:
            if Path(root).exists():
                files = list(Path(root).iterdir())
                for fname in sorted(files):
                    shapes = self._retrieve_shapes(fname)
                    num_slices, tensor_sizes = shapes[0], shapes[1:]

                    self.examples += [
                        (fname, slice_ind, tensor_sizes) for slice_ind in range(num_slices)

                if dataset_cache.get(root) is None and use_dataset_cache:
                    dataset_cache[root] = self.examples
                    logging.info(f'Saving dataset cache to {dataset_cache_file}.')
                    with open(dataset_cache_file, 'wb') as f:
                        pickle.dump(dataset_cache, f)
                logging.info(f'Skipping loading of dataset because {root} does not exists.')
            logging.info(f'Using dataset cache from {dataset_cache_file}.')
            self.examples = dataset_cache[root]

        # subsample if desired
        if sample_rate < 1.0:  # sample by slice
            num_examples = round(len(self.examples) * sample_rate)
            self.examples = self.examples[:num_examples]
        elif volume_sample_rate < 1.0:  # sample by volume
            vol_names = sorted(list(set([f[0].stem for f in self.examples])))
            num_volumes = round(len(vol_names) * volume_sample_rate)
            sampled_vols = vol_names[:num_volumes]
            self.examples = [
                example for example in self.examples if example[0].stem in sampled_vols

        # select based on num_cols if desired
        if num_cols:
            self.examples = [
                for ex in self.examples
                if ex[2]['encoding_size'][1] in num_cols  # type: ignore

    def _retrieve_shapes(self, fname) -> Tuple[int, ...]:
        with h5py.File(fname, 'r') as hf:
            kspace: h5py.Dataset = hf['kspace']  # type: ignore
            recon: h5py.Dataset = hf.get(self.recons_key)  # type: ignore
            shapes = kspace.shape + (recon.shape[1:] if recon is not None else ())

        return shapes

    def __len__(self):
        return len(self.examples)

    def __getitem__(self, i: int):
        fname, dataslice, _ = self.examples[i]

        # load data from h5 file
        with h5py.File(fname, 'r', locking=False) as hf:
            kspace = np.asarray(hf['kspace'])[dataslice]  # [coil, (frame), readout, phase]
            mask   = np.asarray(hf['mask']) if 'mask' in hf else None  # [(frame), phase]
            target = np.asarray(hf[self.recons_key])[dataslice] if self.recons_key in hf else None  # [(frame), y, x]
            header = ismrmrd.xsd.CreateFromDocument(hf['ismrmrd_header'][()]) if 'ismrmrd_header' in hf else create_minimal_header(kspace)  # type: ignore
            attrs  = dict(hf.attrs)
            attrs.update({'fname': fname.name})

        # load coil sensitivity data
        if self.coilsens_path is not None:
            if re.search(r'_frame\d{2}', fname.stem):
                # time-resolved
                subject, frame = fname.stem.rsplit('_', 1)
                coilsens_file = self.coilsens_path / subject / f'coil_sens_{frame}.h5'
                # time-averaged
                coilsens_file = self.coilsens_path / fname.stem / 'coil_sens_avg.h5'

            with h5py.File(coilsens_file, 'r', locking=False) as hf:
                sens_maps = np.asarray(hf['coil_sens'])[dataslice]  # [map, coil, (frame=1), y, x]

                # detect full-zeros sensitivity maps (due to clipping and no aliasing)
                sens_maps_nonzero = sens_maps.reshape(sens_maps.shape[0], -1).any(axis=1)
                if not all(sens_maps_nonzero):
                    max_maps_idx = sens_maps_nonzero.argmin()
                    max_maps_idx = sens_maps.shape[0]

                # number of extracted sets of coil sensitivity maps is determined either by the corresponding parameter
                # or by the number of non-zero coil sensitivity maps
                sens_maps = sens_maps[:min(self.num_espirit_maps, max_maps_idx)]
            if np.all(sens_maps == 0):
                warnings.warn(f'Coil sensitivities is all zeros for file {fname.stem}', category=UserWarning)
                sens_maps = np.ones_like(sens_maps)
            sens_maps = None

        return self.transform(kspace, mask, target, sens_maps, header, attrs, dataslice, i)

All these are defined in cinevn_dirs.yaml

'data_path': '',
            'coilsens_path': '',
            'log_path': '.',
            'cache_path': '.'