Computing Hessian-vector product should be x2 to x3 times more expensive than gradient since they all manipulate building back propagation graph of the same scale. But as the log output, the 2nd back propagation process which computes Hv is much more expensive than computing gradient. Even though Hv calculation requires extra computation, it should not be that expensive since it builds a graph of gradient and back propagate.

I also tried Hv calculation on Tensorflow, but it is quite efficient, and only a fraction of time slower than computing gradient. Hence, I am wondering does anyone encounter the same phenomenon in PyTorch and have any comments or suggestions on that?

Codes to reproduce:

```
import torch
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.nn.functional as F
from torch.autograd import Variable
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.autograd as autograd
import torch.nn.functional as F
import numpy as np
import time
import pdb
def hv(loss, model, v):
s = time.time()
grad = autograd.grad(loss, model.parameters(), create_graph=True, retain_graph=True)
e1 = time.time()
Hv = autograd.grad(grad, model.parameters(), grad_outputs=v, retain_graph=True)
e2 = time.time()
print('1st back prop: {} sec. 2nd back prop: {} sec'.format(e1-s, e2-e1))
return Hv
class CNN_ReLU(nn.Module):
def __init__(self):
super(CNN_ReLU, self).__init__()
self.conv1 = nn.Sequential(
nn.Conv2d(in_channels=3, out_channels=32, kernel_size=3, stride=1, padding=1),
nn.BatchNorm2d(32)
)
# N x 32 x 32 x 32
self.conv2 = nn.Sequential(
nn.Conv2d(in_channels=32, out_channels=64, kernel_size=3, stride=1, padding=1),
nn.BatchNorm2d(64)
)
# N x 64 x 32 x 32
self.conv3 = nn.Sequential(
nn.Conv2d(in_channels=64, out_channels=64, kernel_size=3, stride=1, padding=1),
nn.BatchNorm2d(64),
nn.MaxPool2d(kernel_size=2, stride=None)
)
# N x 128 x 16 x 16
self.conv4 = nn.Sequential(
nn.Conv2d(in_channels=64, out_channels=64, kernel_size=3, stride=1, padding=1),
nn.BatchNorm2d(64),
nn.MaxPool2d(kernel_size=2, stride=None)
)
# N x 64 x 8 x 8
self.FC_1 = nn.Linear(4096, 1024)
self.FC_2 = nn.Linear(1024, 256)
self.FC_3 = nn.Linear(256, 10)
def forward(self, x):
N = x.shape[0]
x = self.conv1(x)
x = F.relu(x)
x = self.conv2(x)
x = F.relu(x)
x = self.conv3(x)
x = F.relu(x)
x = self.conv4(x)
x = F.relu(x)
x = x.view(N, -1)
x = self.FC_1(x)
x = F.relu(x)
x = self.FC_2(x)
x = F.relu(x)
out = self.FC_3(x)
return out
if __name__ == '__main__':
use_gpu = torch.cuda.is_available()
model = CNN_ReLU().cuda() if use_gpu else CNN_ReLU()
criterion = nn.CrossEntropyLoss()
images = torch.randn(256, 3, 32, 32)
targets = torch.randint(0, 9, (256, ))
if use_gpu:
targets = targets.cuda()
images = images.cuda()
outputs = (model(images))
loss = criterion(outputs, targets)
v = [torch.ones_like(p, requires_grad=True) for p in model.parameters()]
end2 = time.time()
hv_ = hv(loss, model, v)
end3 = time.time()
torch.autograd.grad(loss, model.parameters(), retain_graph=True)
end4 = time.time()
print('time: Hv {} sec| grad {} sec'.format(end3-end2, end4-end3))
```

```
1st back prop: 0.009919404983520508 sec. 2nd back prop: 0.8351006507873535 sec
time: Hv 0.8451886177062988 sec| grad 0.0013165473937988281 sec
```